Structure and Kinematics of the Vortex System in Axial Turbomachines
3.1 Development of Analytical and Computational Methods
This investigation models the kinematics of the vortex system of an encased axial turbomachine depending on the operation point applying vortex theory and potential flow theory. By doing so, the physical understanding of compressor and fan stall at the housing, surge, spill forward and noise generation is enlarged. The total change in circulation along the plane of the machine is linked to the flow number φ ∶= U / (Ωa) by Euler's turbine equation, with U the axial free-stream velocity, Ω the angular frequency of the turbomachine and a the radius of the housing. Depending on the operating point, the vortex system of an axial turbomachine changes. For the nominal operating point φ ≈ φ_opt and negligible induction, the tip vortices transform into a screw with a pitch of 2πφa. The most relevant operating point for practical applications is part load operation. For this case, i.e. small flow numbers φ → 0, the tip vortices roll up to a vortex ring with increasing circulation due to Helmholtz's theorems. The vortex ring itself is generated by bound vortices rotating with the angular frequency Ω.
Two results emerge out of the analytic research concerning the vortex system of an axial turbomachine at part load: first, the analysis shows an induced movement of the tip vortices in the same rotating direction as the turbomachine. The vortex ring rotates at the sub-synchronous frequency Ω_ind